The aerobes are organisms that require oxygen to live. The term can also be used as an adjective with respect to what needs oxygen or which has this gas.
The opposite of aerobic is anaerobic. In this case, anaerobic organisms (which can also be mentioned as anaerobic) do not use oxygen in their metabolic activities.
The evolutionary process that led to the development of aerobiosis began in oxygenic photosynthesis. In this photosynthesis, water supplies electrons and produces the release of oxygen as a by-product of the process. This photosynthesis began to send a large amount of oxygen into the atmosphere. Aerobic organisms, taking advantage of the energy released from the oxidation of different substances, managed to establish themselves as dominant on the planet.
It is called aerobically to the process through cellular respiration, oxygen can be employed to achieve the oxidation of fat, sugar and other substances, so that energy is generated. Plants and animals are thus aerobic organisms. Through respiration, living things absorb oxygen from the atmosphere and release carbon dioxide. If we focus on the case of the human being, respiration involves inhalation and exhalation of air, a process that allows cellular respiration, hematosis and the supply of oxygen to the different cells of the body.
The process known as hematosis, meanwhile, takes place in aerobic organisms with the aim of exchanging gases between the blood of animals and the outside environment, to remove carbon dioxide and fix oxygen, throughout of the breath. This occurs without energy consumption and in favor of the partial pressure gradient, that is, it is generated by simple diffusion; For this reason, a key point of hematosis is the partial pressure of external oxygen, and its variation affects the characteristics of the body’s response.
For our species, respiration (also known as aerobic metabolism) is an essential process for our life, and we do it involuntarily, constantly, from the moment we are born until we die. The fact that we do not have to make an active decision to carry it out may explain why we pay so little attention to air purity; through most of our habits we contribute directly or indirectly to environmental pollution, and this has a negative impact on our health.
Aerobic organisms have developed various hematosis systems, which are as follows:
* cutaneous: this can be seen in echinoderms, annelids and amphibians. It is important to distinguish between the skin, through which gas exchange takes place, and the body integument, which performs the configuration of the respiratory structure. The skin must have a very thin thickness and a high level of humidity;
* tracheal: the trachea is an organ present in onychophores and terrestrial arthropods. A set of hollow tubes connected progressively to each other is known as the tracheal system, starting with those with the smallest diameter;
* gill: the organ known as gill or gill is found in many aquatic animals, and serves for the extraction of oxygen and transfer to the environment of carbon dioxide;
* pulmonary: this system is what allows us to carry out aerobic metabolism, and gives rise to pulmonary ventilation, a group of processes that promote the flow of air between the pulmonary alveoli and the atmosphere, through inspiration and expiration.
The aerobiología finally is specialization of biology that focuses on the analysis of organic particles moving type passively by the action of the air.