Carlism is called the movement and the doctrine that emerged as an opposition to liberalism, supporting Carlos de Borbón to succeed King Fernando VII instead of Isabel II of Spain, who was finally enthroned in 1833.
Carlism was traditionalist and absolutist: the defense of the monarchy and the Catholic religion were its pillars. It was a movement that lasted until the fall of Francoism in the mid- 1970’s. In almost a century and a half, Carlism participated in armed confrontations and was part of Spanish politics.
Historians argue that the carlismo, originally, was a response to the liberalism, driven by the most conservative sectors of society in Spain. When Fernando VII died in 1833, a dispute arose over his succession between his daughter Isabel II and his brother Carlos de Borbón. While the former bet on the reforms that emerged after the French Revolution, Carlos de Borbón defended the privileges of the aristocracy and the Catholic Church.
Who acceded to the Crown, finally, was Isabel II. The Carlism, in this framework, began to act to overthrow the queen. The insurrections fostered by the movement were known as Carlist Wars.
The First Carlist War began in 1833 and lasted until 1839, leaving nearly 200,000 dead. Between 1846 and 1849 the Second Carlist War, less tragic, took place. Finally, in 1872 the Third Carlist War broke out, which lasted until 1876.
In addition to all the data exposed on Carlism, we can establish other equally significant such as the following:
– Throughout its history it was also known as the Carlist Party, Traditionalist Communion or Catholic-Monarchical Communion.
-His motto was “God, Country, King”, to which, over the years, he would also add the word “Fueros”.
-Its flag consisted of a white background on which the famous Cross of Burgundy was presented in red. Cruz is that we can establish that it is a representation of the Cross of San Andrés where it is made up of two trunks that form the cross and that present knots in the places where it is considered that those were broken.
– No less relevant is that Carlism had at first as an anthem what was called the March of Don Carlos. However, as of 1930, it changed and its anthem was the March of Oriamendi. This was composed by Ignacio Baleztena Azcárate and featured musical arrangements by Silvano Cervantes. It should be noted that it receives its name from a battle that took place on the mountain that gives it its name and that took place in 1837 during the First Carlist War. It is also interesting to know that during the Spanish Civil War it became the combat anthem of the Requeté.
-El Requeté was a paramilitary and Carlist organization that was created at the beginning of the 20th century and which managed to be made up of more than 60,000 volunteers.