What are Centralization and decentralization?
Centralization and decentralization are two terms that refer to two models of administration and control of authority, which are opposed, and which can be applied, one or the other, in an organization, department or political system.
Explained on Digo Paul, centralization indicates the action of concentrating authority, that is, decision-making falls on or is centralized on a specific person or group of individuals, in order to optimize the work system of an organization or administration of a business.
On the other hand, the term centralization is also related to the administration of public institutions and government management. In this case, all decisions are made by the highest-ranking figure of a government and the other departments or entities comply with it.
For example, local governments obey and depend on the orders of the national government.
However, decentralization is the action of transferring or delegating authority to other hierarchies, that is, other departments or units of an organization or government can make decisions and generate greater benefits. You can even have a decentralized education system.
In politics, decentralization is a term that refers to transferring part of the authority and power to other government entities or organizations so that they can solve various situations that directly concern them. In this case, decentralization can be to a greater or lesser degree, as designated.
Advantages of centralization and decentralization
Both centralization and decentralization have a number of advantages in terms of managing authority and its effectiveness.
Advantages of centralization
- Those with the power and authority to make decisions have a broad vision of the company or government.
- It enables decision-making to be uniform at a general level, which facilitates the application of work methods and policies.
- Avoid doing the same job more than once due to problems or lack of communication.
- Those with greater authority must have specialized training that corresponds to their obligations. In other words, it implies greater training and knowledge.
Advantages of decentralization
- The training of the lower hierarchies is increased.
- The department heads are the ones who make the decisions directly, so there is a better use and use of time.
- You can have greater control on certain labor or government issues.
- The training of subordinate personnel is increased.
Disadvantages of centralization and decentralization
Also, both centralization and decentralization have various disadvantages that can make people doubt which of them is more convenient. However, one or the other option will be less recommended depending on the situation referred to.
Disadvantages of centralization
- There are usually delays in communication or orientation due to the distance that exists between the authorities and other subordinates.
- The bosses or authorities are often overloaded with work due to the large number of tasks that they must attend to.
- Limits subdivision development and reduces employee motivation.
- Many times the authorities are unaware of the problems of the other departments that he directs.
Disadvantages of decentralization
- Sometimes the decisions of the departments or organizations are not aligned according to the general terms that govern them.
- There may be a waste of time and money in the event that two or more people, unknowingly, work on the same task that can be solved by one.
- The knowledge of the specialists is not taken into account because they belong to the central department of the company or organization.
- It may happen that the departments do not have the appropriate equipment to carry out their tasks due to lack of training.