Germany Country Facts

Germany
Capital city Berlin
Surface 357,121 km²
Population 82,176,000
Road network length 650,000 km
Length of highway network 15,578 km
First highway 1935
Motorway name Autobahn
Traffic drives Right
License plate code d

Germany (Deutschland), in full the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is a country in Central Europe. Germany has an area of ​​more than 357,000 km², approximately ten times as large as the land area of ​​the Netherlands. It is centrally located in Europe, both on the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. The country has more than 82 million inhabitants, making it the most populous country in Europe after Russia. The capital is Berlin, other major cities are Hamburg, Munich, Köln and Frankfurt.

Location

Germany is located on the transition from Western to Central Europe. It is bordered to the north by Denmark, to the east by Poland and the Czech Republic, to the south by Austria and Switzerland and to the west by France, Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands. To the northwest is the North Sea and to the northeast the Baltic Sea, also known as the Baltic Sea. The country measures about 840 kilometers from north to south and a maximum of 600 kilometers from east to west.

Landscape

Germany has a varied landscape with many forest areas. In the north lies the North German Plain, with the Lüneburger Heide and the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte. In the center and south are low mountain ranges: prominently the Harz, Erzgebirge, Bayerischer Wald, Sauerland, Thüringer Wald, Rhön, Weserbergland, Eifel, Hunsrück, Schwarzwald, Spessart and Odenwald. In the extreme south are the Alps with the 2,962 m high Zugspitze as the highest point. Several major rivers flow through the country, such as the Rhein (Rhine), Elbe, Oder, Weser, Main, Neckar, Danube, Isar, Inn and Lech.

Towns

Germany is a country with many medium and large cities, although only four cities have more than 1 million inhabitants, in order of Berlin, Hamburg, Munich and Köln. In addition, there are numerous major cities such as Bremen, Hanover, Dortmund, Leipzig, Dresden, Nürnberg, Frankfurt, Duisburg, Essen, Bochum, Düsseldorf, Mannheim, Stuttgart and Augsburg. Germany is polycentric; a relatively small part of the population lives in the capital.

Economy

Germany has an export-based economy and is one of the most industrialized countries in Europe. It has a large internal market due to its large population. Important are the transport sector, the banking sector, the energy industry, the automotive industry and the maritime industry. Germany is one of the most prosperous countries in Europe. The eastern states are lagging somewhat behind, especially outside the major cities.

History

In 1814 the German Confederation was created, a loose association of 39 sovereign states. The German Empire was created in 1871. In the summer of 1914, Germany became involved in the First World War. After a bloody battle in the trenches of Belgium and northern France, with heavy losses, Germany had to end the war in 1918. Germany was at the cradle of the Second World War in 1939. In 1945, Germany had to capitulate and was occupied by France, Great Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union. The eastern part became the German Democratic Republic (GDR) and was under Soviet influence. From 1949 the west formed the Federal Republic of Germany. The Cold War became most palpable in Germany as the GDR was sealed off from the east with an almost impregnable border. The Berlin Wall became the symbol of the division.

States of Germany
Baden-Württemberg • Bayern • Berlin • Brandenburg • Bremen • Hamburg • Hesse • ​​Mecklenburg-Vorpommern • Niedersachsen • North Rhine-Westphalia • Rhineland-Palatinate • Saarland • Saxony • Saxony-Anhalt • Schleswig-Holstein • Thuringia

Autobahns

Germany has an extensive network of Autobahnen and in Europe, after Spainover the largest network of these types of roads. In 2015, the country had 12,963 kilometers of Autobahn. The country has a grid system, which is characteristic of a polycentric country with many large centers of which not one strongly dominates. The German Autobahn network is relatively dense, although there are still extensive areas that are more than 40 kilometers from an Autobahn. Germany is one of the most important transit countries in Europe and handles a large part of international transport in Central and Western Europe. The main single-digit Autobahnen form the main routes and are usually more than 400 kilometers long. The two-digit Autobahnen often form regional to interregional connections. The three-digit Autobahnen are branches and almost always have a local importance.

The German Autobahnen are usually equipped with 2×2 or 2×3 lanes. Important transport axes are often carried out over large distances with 2×3 lanes, but the capacity on many Autobahnen is insufficient. Particularly from 1990, freight traffic on the German Autobahnen increased enormously, as a result of which many Autobahnen no longer ” Leistungsfähig “.” and there are many traffic jams. There are only a few Autobahnen with more than 2×3 lanes. The Autobahnen often run relatively far outside the city centers and the exit density is lower than in the Netherlands or Belgium. The highways are therefore mainly used for long-distance traffic. Apart from a number of metropolitan areas, Autobahnen are used less for relatively short journeys than in the Netherlands Traffic intensities on Autobahnen are much lower than in the Netherlands or Belgium The number of road sections with more than 100,000 vehicles per day is limited and only very incidental there are road sections with more than 150,000 vehicles per 24 hours.The busiest is the A100in Berlin with 190,000 vehicles per day. This intensity is still significantly lower than at comparable locations in the Netherlands, Belgium, France or Spain.

 

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