Luxembourg Country Facts

Capital city Luxembourg
Surface 2,586 km²
Population 602,000
Road network length 2,837 km
Length of highway network 156 km
First highway 1969
Motorway name autobunn
Traffic drives Right
License plate code L

Luxembourg (French: Luxembourg, Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuerg), formally the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (French: Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, German: Großherzogtum Luxembourg, Luxembourgish: Groussherzogtum Lëtzebuerg) is a small country in Western Europe. The country has 602,000 inhabitants and has an area of ​​only 2,586 km². The capital is Luxembourg of the same name.


Luxembourg is a small country and is not located by the sea. It borders Belgium to the west and north, Germany to the east and France to the south. Luxembourg is the largest of the European mini-states, measuring 80 kilometers from north to south and 50 kilometers from east to west. Luxembourg is a predominantly hilly country, which, however, is not as densely forested as the neighboring regions of Belgium and Germany. The northern part of Luxembourg falls under the Ardennes and is also called the Oesling. The southern part of Luxembourg is sometimes called the Gutland and is more densely populated. The 560 meter high Kneiff is the highest point in Luxembourg. There are several rivers in Luxembourg, of which the Mosel / Moselle (Moselle) is the most important and forms part of the border with Germany. The border with Germany is further formed by the Sauer/Sûre and the Our. The Sûre is the largest river that forms more than just a border river in Luxembourg.

Luxembourg has a mild maritime climate, with cool to cold winters and moderate summers. The average maximum temperature in Luxembourg ranges from 3°C in January to 23°C in July. There is almost 900 mm of precipitation per year, evenly distributed over the year. Snow falls regularly in winter, but usually does not last very long in the lower parts.


Luxembourg grew from approximately 230,000 inhabitants in 1900 to approximately 440,000 inhabitants in 2000. The growth has since accelerated, the country exceeded the limit of 600,000 inhabitants in 2018. Only 55% of the population has Luxembourg nationality. A large proportion of the 45% foreigners come from four countries: France, Belgium, Portugal and Italy. About 100,000 Portuguese live in Luxembourg, from the 1960s many Portuguese came to Luxembourg to work in industry in the south of the country.

Luxembourg has one real city, Luxembourg of the same name, often referred to as Luxembourg City or Ville de Luxembourg to distinguish it from the country. The city has more than 100,000 inhabitants, but other cities are considerably smaller, only Esch-sur-Alzette, Differdange and Dudelange have more than 10,000 inhabitants.

There are three official languages ​​in Luxembourg; German, French and Luxembourgish. Luxembourgish is spoken but not often written; then French is used. German is mainly taught as a first language in schools.


Luxembourg is the richest country in the world, with an income of $88,000 per capita. Luxembourg’s economy is highly integrated with its neighboring countries and the region is the scene of a great deal of international commuter traffic. People work in Luxembourg but live in France, for example. Due to the low tax rates, the country is known as a tax haven.


In 963, Count Siegfried of Luxembourg bought a castle in Trier. His descendants expanded their territory. At the end of the 13th century, the Counts of Luxembourg ruled over a considerable territory. The House of Luxembourg produced four Holy Roman Emperors. In 1354 the area was given the status of a duchy. In 1482 the duchy came into the hands of the House of Habsburg, after that it was part of the Seventeen Provinces of the Habsburg Netherlands. Over the centuries, the city of Luxembourg expanded into one of the best fortified towns in Europe. In 1795 it was occupied by France under Napoleon.

In 1815 Luxembourg became an independent state in the personal property of William I of the Netherlands. In 1839 Luxembourg was ceded to Belgium, after which it was formed as an independent country, with the west remaining a part of Belgium, the current province of Luxembourg. The mines led to large-scale industrialization in the first half of the 20th century. In 1914 Luxembourg was occupied by Germany as part of the invasion of France. The Germans were mainly interested in the railways to France and less in Luxembourg itself, which retained a certain degree of independence during the occupation. In 1940, this was repeated in World War II, but this time Luxembourg was considered German territory. Luxembourg was liberated in September 1944.


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